# Elevation and Windage Information

### Elevation and Windage

Elevation is the required up (U) and down (D) adjustment of the scope to hit the target. Windage is the required left (L) and right (R) adjustment of the scope to hit the target. The Elevation and Windage depends on the rifle setup, distance to the target, the wind, and the barrel angle, as well as less significant factors like air density (temperature, altitude), Gyroscopic spin drift, and the Coriolis force. The units of Elevation and Windage adjustment depends on the scope, but is typically given by minutes of angle (moa) or milliradian (mrad or mil). This rounds the value to the nearest 0.1 mrad or 0.25 moa increment. Be sure to choose the correct output units for your scope.

Note that: 1 mrad ≈ 10 cm @ 100 m

1 moa ≈ 1 in @ 100 yd

The distance from the muzzle of the barrel to the target.

### Barrel Angle

The barrel angle is measured from a flat shooting position (barrel perpendicular to the gravity vector). A good range finder will be able to give you this angle when you determine the distance to the target. Barrel angle sign is positive (+) when aiming upward to the target and negative (-) if you are aiming downward to the target. Make sure you include the negative sign (-) if the barrel is aiming downward.

### Rifle Name

The rifle name is the name of the rifle setup you wish to use. The rifle setups are given by the setups saved using the basic rifle setup. This rifle setup gives all of the required information of the rifle, scope, and ammunition to calculate the elavation and windage. Make sure your rifle is setup and saved correctly with the correct units.

### Wind Velocity

The wind velocity affects the trajectory of the bullet. The simplest way to measure the magnitude and direction of the wind is to split it into three components (three dimensions) in relation to the barrel direction. The x component (Wx) is considered along the axis of the barrel towards the target, the y component (Wy) is considered along the axis which is perpendicular to the barrel and the gravity vector, and the z component (Wz) is considered along the axis which is perpendicular to the barrel axis (x axis) and perpendicular to the y axis. Given these axes the wind can easily be determined in these directions using an anemometer.

### Wx (Wind in the x direction)

Wind in the x direction (Wx) is considered along the axis of the barrel towards the target. Wx sign is positive (+) when the wind direction is from the rifle to the target and negative (-) if the wind direction is from the target to the rifle. Make sure you include the negative sign (-) if the wind is in the negative direction.

### Wy (Wind in the y direction)

Wind in the y direction (Wy) is considered along the axis which is perpendicular to the barrel and perpendicular to the gravity vector. Wy sign is positive (+) when wind is to the right (when looking towards the target) and negative (-) if the wind direction is to the left. Make sure you include the negative sign (-) if the wind is directed to the left.

### Wz (Wind in the z direction)

Wind in the z direction (Wz) is considered along the axis which is perpendicular to the barrel axis (x axis) and perpendicular to the y axis. Wz sign is positive (+) when wind direction is upwards and negative (-) if the wind direction is downward. Make sure you include the negative sign (-) if the wind is directed downwards.